How the Hell does North Korea Manage to Earn Foreign Exchange?

19 04 2017

Kaesong Industrial Park - workers(Charis Chang, 2017.04.18, www.news.com.au) From the outside North Korea looks like an impoverished state cut off from the rest of the world. But during its weekend procession, the isolated regime managed to put on an impressive display of its rockets and military strength, in defiance of growing American warnings about its military capability.

While many have the impression of North Korea being a poor country that can’t feed its own people, Leonid Petrov told news.com.au that it had large stockpiles of natural resources that it used to fund its weapons research.

“North Korea is a mountainous country that has huge natural resources including deposits of high quality coal, gold, silver, uranium, iron ore and rare earth metals,” said Dr Petrov, a visiting fellow at the Australian National University College of Asia and the Pacific.

He said North Korea had exported its minerals to allies such as China and the Soviet Union for decades until the collapse of the communist bloc. Since then it had been more proactive in international trade, although the tightening of sanctions has seen its export ability curtailed recently.

Dr Petrov said China in particular had maintained trade in North Korea and was keen to keep a monopoly on its rare earth metal trade.
“So China buys everything North Korea is prepared to offer (of its rare earth metals),” he said. These metals are important because they are used the production of many 21st century products like mobile phones, computers, LCD screens and cars.

Another way that North Korea earns its money is by exporting its workers to China, Russia, the Middle East, Eastern Europe and South East Asia. In fact there were no visa requirements between North Korea and Malaysia until early this year, when tens of thousands of North Korean workers were deported following the assassination of North Korean president Kim Jong-un’s older brother Kim Jong-nam.

“Tens of thousands of North Koreans are sent overseas to work in restaurants, construction sites, as vegetable growers and builders of monuments in places like Africa,” Dr Petrov said.

“Dictatorships like big projects and North Korea can offer them labour to build big monuments, highways and airports.” Dr Petrov said the “lion’s share” of the worker’s wages went to the North Korean government.

North Korea also welcomes foreign investment. The Egyptians have invested in the country’s telecommunications network, concrete factories and construction industries, while the Chinese are keen on fishery resources, the mining industry and have developed a network of supermarkets selling Chinese-made consumerables.

Previously North Korea also benefited from co-operation with South Korea, which invested hundreds of millions into the Mt Kumgang resort where South Koreans and foreign visitors could stay and go mountain climbing. The Kaesong Industrial Park, which produced goods using South Korean know-how and North Korean labour, also gave it a financial boost until it was shut down last year following North Korea’s fourth nuclear test.

Dr Petrov said until last year China was also providing North Korea with other resources it needed such as crude oil and petroleum at “friendly prices” or possibly even for free.
It’s this type of trade that the Trump administration and the Australian government wants to block.

“They’re keen to see China stifling North Korea to death and causing the economic collapse of North Korea’s economy, which is unrealistic,” Dr Petrov said.

He said China sacrificed more than 250,000 soldiers during the Korean War to support the North Korean government. “It’s wishful thinking that China would just turn the tap off and allow the North Korean regime to implode.

“China understands that this would cause chaos in North Korea, the absorption of North Korea into South Korea and the subsequent advance of American troops to the Chinese border.

“So China is not going to allow the economic collapse of North Korea.” Dr Petrov said China was more likely to demonstrate its anger through ceasing economic co-operation temporarily, such as when it suspended the importation of coal after the assassination of Kim Jong-nam. “It bites but is not deadly,” he said.

But Dr Petrov said these types of actions were probably not going to be effective in curbing North Korea’s ambitions as it could always turn to Russia to help. “If China ceases economic co-operation, then Russia steps in and will continue doing the same,” he said.

“North Korea knows that well and plays off Russia against China, allowing Moscow and Beijing to compete for concessions on North Korea’s mining industry, fisheries and port facilities.” Russia is interested in North Korea because it sees it as a good market for Russian gas, oil and electricity. Russia believes North Korea could also potentially open the corridor for the export of energy to South Korea.

It sees North Korea as part of a potential transport corridor stretching from South Korea to Europe, via Russia’s Trans-Siberian Railway. “Russia is not interested in the collapse of North Korea but the stability and co-operation with North Korea,” Dr Petrov said.

Even other countries have had a hard time enforcing sanctions against North Korea.
A United Nations expert team released a report last month that found North Korea had managed to avoid sanctions by using Chinese front companies and other foreign entities to disguise where its goods were coming from. Last year it managed to continue its export of banned minerals and also has access to international banking.

Part of the problem is how different countries interpret what is banned by the sanctions.
One example was highlighted after Austrian ski equipment was found at the luxury Masik ski resort in North Korea. Austria later said it didn’t think ski lifts were included in the European Union’s definition of luxury goods prohibited from being sold to North Korea.

An Australian brand of ski clothing was even manufactured at the Taedonggang Clothing Factory in Pyongsong from 2014, but the company said it was not aware of the problem until after production had been completed and shipped to retail customers. It took two years for the company to sever its production line.

When asked how the conflict with North Korea could be resolved, Dr Petrov said: “Stop the war, end the conflict, reconcile and co-operate”. Dr Petrov believes that North Korea had a chance for survival if it could resume co-operation with South Korea, and this could happen if South Korea changed leadership at its May 9 presidential election.

He said co-operation did happen during the 10 years of the Sunshine policy that encouraged interaction and economic assistance between the two countries from 1998 to 2008, but the US actions were very important.
He said North Korea initially froze its nuclear program according to an agreement made when Bill Clinton was president but his successor George Bush scrapped this, which forced North Korea to resume its program.

See the full article here… 





Op Handelsmissie in Noord-Korea

11 03 2009

py-taedonggang-htl-project-200817 februari 2009, VKBANEN
Stefanie Vermeulen

Noord-Korea is één van de laatste communistische dictaturen ter wereld. Het land zit potdicht en de vrije markt bestaat er niet. Toch reizen er geregeld ondernemers heen voor handel. ‘Het regime is geen issue voor ons. Als we zaken kunnen doen, dan doen we het.’ 

Een groepje Noord-Koreanen schuifelt langs het geboortehuis van Kim Il-Sung, de in 1994 overleden dictator. Ze zijn er niet voor de lol, zo lijkt het. Ze kletsen niet met elkaar, wijzen niet bewonderend naar de werktuigen van hun voormalige leider. Dicht op elkaar gepakt en met hun hoofden wat gebogen, schuifelen ze eerder een verplicht rondje. Gewapende soldaten wachten ze op bij de bus…

Leonid Petrov, hoogleraar Korea Studies aan de nationale universiteit van Australië raadt het de ondernemers ook af om meteen concrete zaken te doen met de Noord-Koreanen. ‘Je moet bereid zijn om met de communistische staat te onderhandelen, of met organisaties die geen idee hebben van hoe een commerciële organisatie werkt. Het is beter om eerst het land en de mensen te leren begrijpen. Anders riskeer je het veel geld te verliezen.’

…Toch zou het ijzige ondernemingsklimaat in de nabije toekomst wel eens kunnen smelten. President Kim Jong-Il is al lang niet verschenen op het publieke toneel, wat het vermoeden versterkt dat zijn gezondheid slecht is. Zijn zoon Kim Jong-Un zou volgens de Zuid-Koreaanse inlichtingendienst onlangs als opvolger zijn aangewezen. Volgens Leonid Petrov een positieve ontwikkeling: ‘Zijn zoons zijn geen guerrillastrijders, maar zakenmensen die over de hele wereld hebben gereisd. Het land kan een enorme ontwikkeling doormaken als zij de macht overnemen.’

See the full text in Dutch and video interview in English here…





Seminar on Business Opportunities in North Korea

2 03 2009

picture-025Seminar Ondernemen in Noord Korea
Woensdag 4 maart, 14:00 – 17:30
KVK Den Haag, Randstadzaal
Koningskade 30, 2596 AA Den Haag
Program in English here..

De financiële en de economische situatie zorgt voor nieuwe uitdagingen. Bedrijven moeten snoeien in de kosten en nieuwe afzetmarkten zoeken. Op al deze gebieden liggen er kansen in DPRK. De Democratic People’s Republic of Korea ofwel Noord Korea is één van de laatste landen met een Marxistisch regime en al decennialang één van de meest geïsoleerde landen ter wereld. Buitenlandse ondernemers hadden tot en met de tweede helft van de jaren negentig nauwelijks toegang tot dit land. Geïnspireerd door de economische successen in buurland China, opent Noord Korea langzaam haar deuren voor buitenlandse ondernemers. Om buitenlandse investeringen aan te trekken, richtte het land enkele vrijhandelszones in waarin marktregels gelden. Op 4 maart organiseren het NCH, de Dutch Korean Tradeclub – DKTC samen met de Kamer van Koophandel Den Haag en de sponsor VNC Asia Travel een (Engelstalig) seminar over Ondernemen in Noord Korea om Nederlandse bedrijven in te lichten over de zakelijke mogelijkheden in Noord Korea.

Op dit seminar zal een vertegenwoordiger van de Noord Koreaanse ambassade in Bern, Zwitserland een presentatie geven over de handels- en investeringsmogelijkheden in Noord Korea. Verder zal Paul Tjia van GPI Consultancy (website GIP) ingaan op de mogelijkheden om ICT-werk uit te laten voeren in Noord Korea. Paul Tjia zal tevens informatie verstrekken over de laatste handelsreis die in september jl. plaats vond en de plannen toelichten voor de volgende handelsmissie naar Noord Korea die van 9-16 mei a.s. zal plaatsvinden. Professor Evert Jacobsen, werkzaam bij de Universiteit van Wageningen, zal zijn presentatie wijden aan de mogelijkheden op het gebied van de agrarische sector en dan in het bijzonder over de samenwerking met de Noord Koreaanse overheid m.b.t. de teelt van (poot)aardappelen. De heer Kees van Galen van VNC ASIA TRAVEL (website VNC) zal een presentatie geven over de ontwikkeling van het toerisme naar en in Noord Korea. Egbert Wissink van NovolinQ BV (website NovolinQ) zal in zijn presentatie ingaan op de strategische en economische ontwikkelingsmogelijkheden voor de Nederlandse Industrie in Noord Korea. Het Seminar zal worden voorgezeten door Willem Lobbes, bestuurslid van de Dutch Korean Tradeclub.

Dit seminar is tevens bedoeld als een kick-off voor de geplande handelsmissie van 9-16 mei naar Noord Korea. Tijdens deze reis zal men in staat gesteld worden om diepgaand de concrete zakelijke mogelijkheden te verkennen. Op basis van uw wensen worden afspraken gemaakt met bedrijven en organisaties in Pyongyang. Tevens zal de 12e Pyongyang Spring International Trade Fair bezocht worden. Zie website.

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